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Wednesday, April 22

  1. page Knossos edited =---- = The Palace at Knossos Peaceful Trade Ventures ... {linear_a_script.jpg} Linear A scr…
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    The Palace at Knossos
    Peaceful Trade Ventures
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    {linear_a_script.jpg} Linear A scriptWriting
    It is believed that the Minoan contact with Egypt helped influence early writing. By 3,000 B.C.E. the Cretans at Knossos were in enough contact with northern Africa to nearly copy their hieroglyphic designs (Smith, 2008). At first hieroglyph-like pictures were used as symbols representing objects and were specifically used for record keeping; over 2,000 clay tablets have been found in different rooms at Knossos alone (Martin, 2000). This type of writing was found on clay tablets and especially on seals. The seals had up to eight sides; the sides are so similar on all the discovered seals that it is believed to be a basic formula describing fruit, olive oil, or wine and the name or title of a person or place (Haarmann, 1996). Eventually the pictographic writing evolved into a linear form representing word sounds. Called Linear A, it remains largely undeciphered but recent studies suggest that it might be Indo-European. It is understood well enough to a degree to see that it was mainly used for list keeping and accounting, supporting the economic status of Knossos. The Minoans were meticulous about their record keeping and even kept records of sacrificial offerings (Martin, 2000). Egyptians were notorious list makers as well. {linear_b_tablet.jpg} Linear B script
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    Conclusion
    The Minoans at Knossos prospered with their profitable trade. Their common trade routes encompassed most of the Mediterranean Sea area. We can see by examining the artifacts that remain that they were a peaceful and wealthy community, and exhibited high economic social status with the large quantities of imports and exports. Their location and technologies of the Minoans at Knossos supported their abundant lifestyle, and allowed for trade not only with other countries of the Aegean but even places as far away as northern Africa and the Levant. Unfortunately the peaceful influence of Knossos came to a violent end. The Mycenaeans invaded Crete near 1400 B.C.E. and pushed out the Minoans. There is speculation that the Mycenaean motive was the extreme jealousy of the lavish lifestyle of the Minoans, particularly at palaces like Knossos (Woodman, 2002). Knossos was the last Minoan settlement to fall to the Mycenaeans, who quickly assumed leadership over the Aegean. The peaceful trade at Knossos had come to an end. Numerous warrior tombs found at Knossos contain distinct artifacts resembling those of Mycenae on the mainland after the fall of Knossos (Vermeule, 1963). On a smaller scale the Minoans continued to operate their trade and influence, just more quietly and under Mycenaean rule (Drews 1993).
    (view changes)
    7:34 am
  2. page Knossos edited =---- = The Palace at Knossos Peaceful Trade Ventures ... Stone Vessels {pithoi.jpg} The to…
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    The Palace at Knossos
    Peaceful Trade Ventures
    ...
    Stone Vessels {pithoi.jpg} The total volume of the large stone storage vessels found at Knossos equals approximately 240,000 gallons (Martin, 2000).
    There also was a large sphere of influential trade based on different types of serving vessels. Many of the vessels were used for storing agricultural goods, like wine and olive oil (Martin, 2000). There have been a large number of vessels found at Knossos that “represent a curious range of exotica (Bevan, 2007).” Many of them resemble Egyptian, Levantine, and Cypriot vessels of the same time periods. They are mostly closed stirrup jars, and some that were found are open bowls or cups (Bevan, 2007). Egyptian stone vessels have been found at Knossos from as early as the Early Dynastic Period and are thought to be the motivating factor in the Minoan stone vessel trade (Bard, 1999). The very distinct dates associated with these vessels from neighboring sites around Crete and the Mediterranean suggests that Knossos later acted as a working center for such vessels, based on discarded drilling cores found in certain buildings of the palace and spinning pottery wheels for ceramic vessels from a design in the Levant and then exporting them across the Mediterranean (Bevan, 2007). Not only were many of these vessels for trading, but Knossos was based on a redistributive economy like those of Mesopotamia, and the large stone vessels found in the palace were used for storage of goods that were to later be distributed among the people as well as traded (Martin, 2000).
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    {linear_a_script.jpg} Linear A scriptWriting
    It is believed that the Minoan contact with Egypt helped influence early writing. By 3,000 B.C.E. the Cretans at Knossos were in enough contact with northern Africa to nearly copy their hieroglyphic designs (Smith, 2008). At first hieroglyph-like pictures were used as symbols representing objects and were specifically used for record keeping; over 2,000 clay tablets have been found in different rooms at Knossos alone (Martin, 2000). This type of writing was found on clay tablets and especially on seals. The seals had up to eight sides; the sides are so similar on all the discovered seals that it is believed to be a basic formula describing fruit, olive oil, or wine and the name or title of a person or place (Haarmann, 1996). Eventually the pictographic writing evolved into a linear form representing word sounds. Called Linear A, it remains largely undeciphered but recent studies suggest that it might be Indo-European. It is understood well enough to a degree to see that it was mainly used for list keeping and accounting, supporting the economic status of Knossos. The Minoans were meticulous about their record keeping and even kept records of sacrificial offerings (Martin, 2000). Egyptians were notorious list makers as well. {linear_b_tablet.jpg} Linear B script
    (view changes)
    7:33 am
  3. page Knossos edited =---- = The Palace at Knossos Peaceful Trade Ventures ... Stone Vessels {pithoi.jpg} The to…
    =----
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    The Palace at Knossos
    Peaceful Trade Ventures
    ...
    Stone Vessels {pithoi.jpg} The total volume of the large stone storage vessels found at Knossos equals approximately 240,000 gallons (Martin, 2000).
    There also was a large sphere of influential trade based on different types of serving vessels. Many of the vessels were used for storing agricultural goods, like wine and olive oil (Martin, 2000). There have been a large number of vessels found at Knossos that “represent a curious range of exotica (Bevan, 2007).” Many of them resemble Egyptian, Levantine, and Cypriot vessels of the same time periods. They are mostly closed stirrup jars, and some that were found are open bowls or cups (Bevan, 2007). Egyptian stone vessels have been found at Knossos from as early as the Early Dynastic Period and are thought to be the motivating factor in the Minoan stone vessel trade (Bard, 1999). The very distinct dates associated with these vessels from neighboring sites around Crete and the Mediterranean suggests that Knossos later acted as a working center for such vessels, based on discarded drilling cores found in certain buildings of the palace and spinning pottery wheels for ceramic vessels from a design in the Levant and then exporting them across the Mediterranean (Bevan, 2007). Not only were many of these vessels for trading, but Knossos was based on a redistributive economy like those of Mesopotamia, and the large stone vessels found in the palace were used for storage of goods that were to later be distributed among the people as well as traded (Martin, 2000).
    =----
    =

    {linear_a_script.jpg} Linear A scriptWriting
    It is believed that the Minoan contact with Egypt helped influence early writing. By 3,000 B.C.E. the Cretans at Knossos were in enough contact with northern Africa to nearly copy their hieroglyphic designs (Smith, 2008). At first hieroglyph-like pictures were used as symbols representing objects and were specifically used for record keeping; over 2,000 clay tablets have been found in different rooms at Knossos alone (Martin, 2000). This type of writing was found on clay tablets and especially on seals. The seals had up to eight sides; the sides are so similar on all the discovered seals that it is believed to be a basic formula describing fruit, olive oil, or wine and the name or title of a person or place (Haarmann, 1996). Eventually the pictographic writing evolved into a linear form representing word sounds. Called Linear A, it remains largely undeciphered but recent studies suggest that it might be Indo-European. It is understood well enough to a degree to see that it was mainly used for list keeping and accounting, supporting the economic status of Knossos. The Minoans were meticulous about their record keeping and even kept records of sacrificial offerings (Martin, 2000). Egyptians were notorious list makers as well. {linear_b_tablet.jpg} Linear B script
    =----
    =

    Conclusion
    The Minoans at Knossos prospered with their profitable trade. Their common trade routes encompassed most of the Mediterranean Sea area. We can see by examining the artifacts that remain that they were a peaceful and wealthy community, and exhibited high economic social status with the large quantities of imports and exports. Their location and technologies of the Minoans at Knossos supported their abundant lifestyle, and allowed for trade not only with other countries of the Aegean but even places as far away as northern Africa and the Levant. Unfortunately the peaceful influence of Knossos came to a violent end. The Mycenaeans invaded Crete near 1400 B.C.E. and pushed out the Minoans. There is speculation that the Mycenaean motive was the extreme jealousy of the lavish lifestyle of the Minoans, particularly at palaces like Knossos (Woodman, 2002). Knossos was the last Minoan settlement to fall to the Mycenaeans, who quickly assumed leadership over the Aegean. The peaceful trade at Knossos had come to an end. Numerous warrior tombs found at Knossos contain distinct artifacts resembling those of Mycenae on the mainland after the fall of Knossos (Vermeule, 1963). On a smaller scale the Minoans continued to operate their trade and influence, just more quietly and under Mycenaean rule (Drews 1993).
    (view changes)
    7:32 am
  4. page Knossos edited ... Frescoes {Minoan_fresko_avaris_2.png} Fragment of the fresco at Avaris, only part of the bull…
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    Frescoes
    {Minoan_fresko_avaris_2.png} Fragment of the fresco at Avaris, only part of the bull is visible.On the walls of the palace are very distinct and captivating frescoes. They depict scenes of wildlife, religion, and human interaction. The depictions of humans are similar to those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, with the full eye view on one side only. The scenes of the bull leaping are extremely interesting, the artists used special visual techniques to highlight the spirit of the activity; elongating the bull to show action, and the lengthening of the lively and animate bull leaper adds to the intensity and vibrancy of the depiction (Gardner, 2005). A fascinating find in Egypt illustrates the wide realm of exchange throughout the Mediterranean; while excavating at Tell el-Daba, archaeologists found Aegean style frescoes on the walls of the residence at ancient Avaris. Not only were they Aegean style, but there were scenes that are extremely similar to ones at Knossos depicting bull leaping with half rosettes on a maze background (Bard, 1999). The scenes at Avaris are also not painted with the same method as other Egyptian paintings, but with the exact method of fresco used by the artists at Knossos. This leads scholars to believe that the scenes are not Egyptian copies of Aegean frescoes, but actually made in Egypt by artists from Knossos (Gardner, 2005).
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    Throne Room.
    {minoanparisienne.jpg}
    {minoanparisienne.jpg} La Parisienne
    The Snake Goddess
    {snake_goddess.jpg}
    (view changes)
    7:29 am
  5. page Knossos edited ... {Minoan_fresko_avaris_2.png} Fragment of the fresco at Avaris, only part of the bull is visibl…
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    {Minoan_fresko_avaris_2.png} Fragment of the fresco at Avaris, only part of the bull is visible.On the walls of the palace are very distinct and captivating frescoes. They depict scenes of wildlife, religion, and human interaction. The depictions of humans are similar to those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, with the full eye view on one side only. The scenes of the bull leaping are extremely interesting, the artists used special visual techniques to highlight the spirit of the activity; elongating the bull to show action, and the lengthening of the lively and animate bull leaper adds to the intensity and vibrancy of the depiction (Gardner, 2005). A fascinating find in Egypt illustrates the wide realm of exchange throughout the Mediterranean; while excavating at Tell el-Daba, archaeologists found Aegean style frescoes on the walls of the residence at ancient Avaris. Not only were they Aegean style, but there were scenes that are extremely similar to ones at Knossos depicting bull leaping with half rosettes on a maze background (Bard, 1999). The scenes at Avaris are also not painted with the same method as other Egyptian paintings, but with the exact method of fresco used by the artists at Knossos. This leads scholars to believe that the scenes are not Egyptian copies of Aegean frescoes, but actually made in Egypt by artists from Knossos (Gardner, 2005).
    {http://www.minoanatlantis.com/pix/Bull_Leaping_Fresco_Knossos.jpg} Bull leaping fresco at Knossos. {knossos_throne_room_peace_frescoe.jpg} Fresco in the Throne Room.
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    at Knossos.
    The Snake Goddess
    {snake_goddess.jpg}
    (view changes)
    7:28 am

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